1 cup all-purpose flour
1/2 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1/4 teaspoon salt
1/2 stick unsalted butter, softened
2/3 cup plus 1 1/2 tablespoons sugar, divided
1/2 teaspoon pure vanilla extract
1/2 teaspoon almond extract
1 large egg
1/2 cup shaken buttermilk
Peaches, chopped (about 1 1/4 cups)
Almonds, sliced or chopped almonds (about 3/4 cup)
Turbinado sugar (to sprinkle on top of cake)
Preheat oven to 400°F with rack in middle. Butter and flour a 9-inch round cake pan.
Whisk together flour, baking powder, baking soda, and salt.
Beat butter and 2/3 cup sugar with an electric mixer at medium-high speed until pale and fluffy. Beat in vanilla and almond extracts. Add egg and beat until combined.
At low speed, mix in flour mixture in 3 batches, alternating with buttermilk, beginning and ending with flour, and mixing until just combined.
Spoon batter into cake pan, smoothing top. Scatter chopped peaches evenly over top and sprinkle the almonds on top of the peaches. Top with remaining 1 1/2 Tbsp sugar and the turbinado sugar.
Bake until cake is golden and a wooden pick inserted into center comes out clean, 25 to 30 minutes. Cool in pan 10 minutes, then turn out onto a rack and cool to warm, 10 to 15 minutes more. Invert onto a plate.