Preheat oven to 400 degrees F. Place cauliflower florets on a large baking sheet and drizzle with 1 tablespoon of the olive oil. Toss and season with salt and pepper. Roast in the oven for 25-30 minutes, or until cauliflower is tender and starting to brown.
In a large pot, heat the remaining tablespoon of olive oil over medium heat. Add the onion and cook for 3-5 minutes, or until the onion is soft and translucent.
Add the garlic, thyme, and crushed red pepper flakes. Cook for 2 minutes.
Stir in the roasted cauliflower, roasted red peppers, vegetable broth, and paprika. Turn the heat to low and let the soup simmer for 10 minutes.
With a hand held blender, blend the soup in the pot until soup is creamy and smooth. Stir in the fresh basil and shredded Gouda cheese. Heat until cheese is melted. Season the soup with salt and pepper, to taste.
Ladle the soup into bowls and serve with a little shredded Gouda cheese and fresh basil, if desired.